1. Introduction to Carbomer
English name: Carbomer 940, with characteristic slight odor; strong hygroscopicity. Also known as Carbomer 940, it is an acrylic cross-linked resin obtained by cross-linking penta4 alcohol and acrylic acid. It is a very important rheology modifier due to its swelling and weak acidity. , The neutralized carboxy resin is an excellent gel matrix with important properties such as thickening and suspension, simple process and good stability, and is widely used in lotions, creams and gels.
Carbo 940 is a cross-linked acrylic polymer that can be neutralized with alkaline substances after being dissolved in water to form a transparent gel. After the carboxyl group is neutralized to ionizhe carboxyl group, due to the mutual repulsion of the negative charges, the molecular chain is diffused and stretched, and it is in a state of great expansion and viscosity. It can produce thickening effect at very low dosage. Carbopol can make the liquid material have a special yield value and rheology, and only a very low concentration can make some insoluble additives (particles, oil droplets, etc.) to achieve sexual suspension. Therefore, Carbopol is widely used in personal care products such as hair care products, toothpaste and other products, and can also be used as a sustained release agent in medical products, and it is also used in industries such as batteries and printing and dyeing.
2. Thickening mechanism
2.1 Neutralization (salting) thickening
Acidic carbomer resin 940 is usually neutralized into a salt, so that the curled resin molecules are thickened due to the opening of electric repulsion. Oxygen, sodium, hydroxide, potassium and triethanolamine are commonly used medium and agent, so carbomer is more sensitive to ions.
2.2 Bond thickening
Carbomer molecules, as carboxyl group donors, can combine with one or more qiang groups to form bonds to thicken. This neutralization method takes time. Commonly used qiang group donors are non-ionic surfactants, polyols, etc. This method takes time, possibly from 5 minutes to several hours, to reach maximum consistency. The PH value of such substances is acidic, and the thickening can be accelerated by heating the dispersion to 70°C (but not exceeding).
3. Function and use
Carbomer 940 has the characteristics of short rheology, high viscosity, high clarity, low ionic resistance and shear resistance. Its function in the product is mainly reflected in three aspects: thickening, suspension and emulsification. Carbo 940 can produce large viscosity (conventional dosage of 0.25-0.5%) and thickening effect at very low content, so as to prepare emulsions, creams, creams, Gel and transdermal formulations.
Carbopol resin can be used as an excellent suspending agent to suspend insoluble components in the system; it can also be used as an emulsifier to emulsify and stabilize in oil/water phase.
Carbomers are acrylic polymers cross-linked with polyalkenyl polyethers. Although these resins are weakly acidic and weaker than acetic acid, they are easily reacted to form salts, and their pH in water varies between 2.8 and 3.2 depending on the resin concentration. The higher the concentration, the higher the carboxyl group concentration, so the pH value is lower.
4. Technical indicators
Brand Carbomer 940
Appearance loose white powder, slightly acidic
pH value (in 0.5% aqueous solution) 2.7-3.5
Viscosity (in 0.5% aqueous solution) 50000-65000
Apparent density 0.21g/cm3
Specific gravity 1.41
Moisture content max 2.0%
Ash content (average) 0.009ppm
Equilibrium moisture content (at 50% relative humidity) 8-10%
Glass transition temperature 100-105℃
Product Name Concentration Viscosity (centipoise)
CBP-A (940) 0.5% 40000—60000
CBP-B (934) 0.5% 30000—40000
CBP-C (941) 0.5% 6000-11000
Carbomer has various types of products according to its degree of polymerization, and its properties are shown in the table. The first three in the table are the most commonly used
5.1 After the neutralization of carbs, prolonged stirring or high shear stirring will cause viscosity loss
5.2 Presence of ions - the presence of electrolytes will reduce the thickening efficiency of carbomer resins
5.3 Ultraviolet - long-term ultraviolet irradiation will reduce the viscosity of carbomer resin. Insensitive to UV radiation at pH/=10
5.4 Temperature change - Carbomer gel is not affected by temperature
5.5 Microorganisms - Carbomer does not support the growth of bacteria and molds, and the growth of bacteria and molds does not affect the properties of the gel
6. Application of Carbomer in Cosmetics
Carbomer is white and loose; it is acidic, hygroscopic and has a slight special odor, and can be dissolved in water, ethanol and glycerol. The usual concentration is 0.1% to 3.0%. Because its molecule contains a large number of carboxyl groups, the aqueous solution should be used after neutralization with alkali to reduce irritation to the skin and mucous membranes.
The neutralizing agent of carbomer can be sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbon, borax, amino acids, polar organic amines such as triethanolamine. Laurylamine and stearylamine can be used as neutralizers in non-polar systems. The neutralized carbomer hydrogel is the most viscous between pH 6 and 11, such as pH < 3 or pH > 12, the viscosity will decrease, and the presence of strong electrolytes can also reduce the viscosity. The gel is unstable, tends to grow mold and loses viscosity quickly when exposed to sunlight, and the addition of antioxidants can slow the reaction.
The thickening effect of Carbomer 940 produces clear water or ethanol-hydrogels with very short rheology. It is suitable for all kinds of cosmetics. Such as: moisturizing creams, lotions, cleansing products, sunscreen products, alcohol-free perfumes, fragrance hair conditioners (enhancing luster, easy to comb), etc. Carbomer 940 can produce a thickening effect at a very low dosage (conventional dosage of 0.25-0.5%), thereby preparing emulsions, creams, gels and transdermal formulations with a wide range of viscosity and different rheological properties.
7. Application areas
7.1 Used as scale inhibitor and dispersant in industrial water treatment. Compatibility is good. It can also be used for pre-treatment of drinking water. Used to separate red mud in the preparation of alumina. Used in chlor-alkali plants to refine brine.
7.2 It is used to prepare finishing agents for leather and some high-end commodities, and to prepare acrylic resin paints, etc.
7.3 Used to fix chromium salts, assist tanning, reduce chromium pollution, etc.
7.4 Used to improve the processing properties of PVC
7.5 Used as corrosion and scale inhibitor, water stabilizer, quencher, thickener, etc.
7.6 Used as leather finishing filler, textile sizing agent and water quality stabilizer
7.7 For the manufacture of acrylic resin paints
7.8 It can be used as film-forming agent and adhesive in leather finishing agent, and also used to make polyacrylic resin latex paint, etc.
7.9 It is widely used in the decoration of light leather such as face leather, garment leather, glove leather, etc. It can enhance the bending resistance, extensibility, light resistance, aging resistance, cold resistance and heat resistance of the leather. It is used to modify grain leather with pigment paste. Mainly modified film formers.
7.10 It is mostly used in the manufacture of cosmetics. It can be used as an ointment to promote the absorption of Griseofulvin mold, and it can also be used to control the release of drug
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Cosmetic Thickener - Carbomer 940
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